Videnskabelige artikler

På denne side finder du udvalgte videnskabelige artikler skrevet af FIIBLs medarbejdere.

Artiklerne fokuserer på implementeringsforskning i relation til børn og unges idræt, bevægelse, sundhed, trivsel og læring. 

2020

T. Coppinger, K. Milton, E. Murtagh, D. Harrington, D. Johansen, J. Seghers, T. Skovgaard, HEPA Europe Children & Youth Working Group, & A. Chalkley

Objectives
The Global Matrix of report card grades on physical activity serves as a public health awareness tool by summarising the status of child and youth physical activity prevalence and action. The objectives were to: (1) provide a detailed examination of the evidence informing the ‘School’ and ‘Community and Environment’ indicators across all participating European Global Matrix 3.0 countries; (2) explore the comparability of the grades for these two indicators across Europe; (3) detail any limitations or issues with the methods used to assign grades; and (4) provide suggestions on how future grading of the indicators could be improved.

 

Study design
A comparative review of published methods on the grading of Global Matrix 3.0 indicators across European countries.

 

Methods
Key documents relating to the European countries involved in the 2018 Global Matrix 3.0 were collated and a template used to extract data for both the ‘School’ and ‘Community and Environment’ indicators.

 

Results
Seventeen of the 20 European Report Card countries (85%) had a grade for schools, and 15 countries (75%) had a grade for community and environment. All countries considered between one and five factors when assigning the grade for these indicators. There were wide disparities in the number and sources of evidence used to assign the grades for both indicators, limiting the comparability of the evidence between different countries.

 

Conclusion
To enable comparability, the authors recommend moving towards an agreed standardised set of metrics for grading each indicator. Furthermore, it would be useful to develop and share common tools, methods and instruments to collect data in a uniform way across countries, where possible. Such action will ultimately make the Global Matrix a more robust and useful tool for the future.

Julie Vang Knudsen, Lise Maria Elkrog-Hansen & Lars Breum Christiansen

School sport participation can promote life skills in children and youth, but teachers could use an explicit teaching approach to fulfil the potential. Therefore, we conducted a participatory teacher development program, which should promote students’ life skills through school sport at three Danish boarding schools.

 

The aim of this study is to present the program and the teachers’ experiences with the explicit teaching approach and the development program itself.

 

The study design is based on participatory action research and comprised four phases in which the teachers were involved in the design, planning, implementation and evaluation of a life skills course for their students. The evaluation was based on focus group interviews with the teachers involved.

 

The teachers found it beneficial to work explicitly with life skills in school sport and stated that the program provided an opportunity to view their practice from a different perspective. Furthermore, they emphasized that school sport could readily be structured in ways that increase the student’s development of life skills. At the same time, the teachers found the explicit teaching strategies challenging due to priority of time and difficulties connecting the sports practice to other life contexts. Finally, the teachers experienced positive and engaged students who most likely increased their understanding of life skills.

2019

Mette Winge Jakobsen, Leena Eklund Karlsson, Thomas Skovgaard & Arja R. Aro

Background
Although important syntheses and theoretical works exist in relation to understanding the organisational factors that facilitate research use, these contributions differ in their scope and object of study as well as their theoretical underpinnings. Therefore, from an exploratory angle, it may be useful to map out the current literature on organisational factors of research use in public health policy-making when revisiting existing theories and frameworks to gain further theoretical insights.

 

Methods
Herein, a scoping review technique and thematic content analysis were used to bring together findings from both synthesised and empirical studies of different types to map out the organisational factors that facilitate research use in public health policy-making.

 

Results
A total of 14 reviews and 40 empirical studies were included in the analysis. These were thematically coded and the intra-organisational factors reported as enabling research use were examined. Five main categories of organisational factors that advance research use in policy organisations – (1) individual factors, (2) the management of research integration, (3) organisational systems and infrastructures of research use, (4) institutional structures and rules for policy-making, and (5) organisational characteristics – were derived as well as 18 subcategories and a total of 64 specific factors, where 27 factors were well supported by research.

 

Conclusions
Using a scoping review methodology, the intra-organisational factors influencing research use in policy-making (including individual factors) were systematically mapped and the theories applied in this area of research were assessed. The review findings confirm the importance of an intra-organisational perspective when exploring research use, showing that many organisational factors are critical facilitators of research use but also that many factors and mechanisms are understudied. The synthesis shows a lack of studies on politicians and the need for more theoretically founded research. Despite increased efforts to update the existing evidential and theoretical basis of research use, we still need frameworks that combine different approaches and theories to help us grasp the complex organisational mechanisms that facilitate research use in policy settings.

Henrik Taarsted Jørgensen, Sine Agergaard, Michalis Stylianou & Jens Troelsen

In the context of implementing a physical activity policy as part of a national school reform in Denmark, the purpose of this study was to explore lower secondary teachers’ interpretations and perceptions of the physical activity policy with a focus on movement integration. In total, 14 teachers from four different schools were selected to take part in this qualitative study, which involved semi-structured interviews, focus group interviews, go-along observations and informal interviews. A thematic analysis framework was employed to identify and describe patterns of meaning within data. The findings showed substantial diversity among teachers’ interpretations and perceptions of movement integration, and consequently a lack of definitional clarity regarding movement integration and a possible misalignment between policy and practice. Teachers’ perceptions and interpretations of movement integration were influenced by other and more prioritised policies and discourses regarding academic achievement, as well as by intrapersonal, interpersonal and institutional factors. The findings also suggested a lack of support and collaboration within the school and provided insights into the strengths and weaknesses associated with the autonomy afforded in the Danish school reform.

Louise Stjerne Knudsen, Thomas Skovgaard, Thomas Bredahl & Nikolaj Elf.

The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with Danish schoolteachers sustained use of classroom-based physical activity and to point out usable ways to support teachers in their professional practice. The study reports on data from in-depth interviews with nine teachers across grade levels and subjects. Supportive elements influencing sustained use of CBPA were: didactical skills; teacher collaboration (including sharing and co-creation of activities); and resources focusing on suitable physical activities. This study underlines that integration of classroom-based physical activity is a reflective teaching practice, and that activities are not just an addition, but something that has to make sense for the content of subjects, for the students and for the individual teacher.

Jonas Vestergaard Nielsen, Thomas Bredahl, Anna Bugge, Heidi Klakk & Thomas Skovgaard 

There is an ongoing need for research focusing on how to implement physical activity programmes into a school setting. This includes documentation of the extent to which programmes are compatible with the basic views of providers and their local practices. The present study explores the Svendborgproject - a programme tripling the amount of physical education in six public schools, sustaining it for 10-years and documenting a decreased incidence of overweight, obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. The aim was to analyse provider and programme characteristics of the Svendborgproject to gain insights into providers motives for adopting, implementing, and maintaining the programme. Six school heads and six teachers were interviewed to explore how they perceived programme compatibility to their school's practice and their own role as providers. Both teachers and school heads found the additional lessons a valuable asset that fitted existing school values and priorities. Additionally, physical education teachers participated in a course providing new perspectives and teaching methods that aided the implementation of the programme. Lastly, school heads stressed that implementation fidelity was heavily dependent on the dedication of physical education teachers and on having simple programme requirements that made it clear what could be expected of the programme.

Kristian Fahnøe Munksgaard, Christina Haandbæk Schmidt, Thomas Skovgaard

Artiklens ærinde er dels at udforske, hvordan pædagoger kan begribe og udvikle deres professionsidentitet, og dels at udfolde hvilken betydning bevægelse har for en teoretisk forståelse af professionsidentitet. En teoretiske indkredsning af begrebet professionsidentitet kvalificeres via et realist review og en interviewundersøgelse af fire daginstitutionspædagoger. Artiklen konkluderer, at self-efficacy, motivation, affektiv engagement og praksisfællesskaber kan anvendes som analytiske redskaber til at få øje på, hvordan pædagoger udvikler professionsidentitet i kontekster hvor bevægelse har et særligt fokus. Artiklens pointer perspektiveres afslutningsvist i relation til en analyse af læringsforståelser i bekendtgørelsen for pædagoguddannelsen.

2018

Danielle Louise Nørager Johansen, Bjørn Friis Neerfeldt Christensen, Michael Fester, Børge Koch m.fl.
Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes ... Thomas Skovgaard m.fl. 

Background:
Accumulating sufficient moderate to vigorous physical activity is recognized as a key determinant of physical, physiological, developmental, mental, cognitive, and social health among children and youth (aged 5–17 y). The Global Matrix 3.0 of Report Card grades on physical activity was developed to achieve a better understanding of the global variation in child and youth physical activity and associated supports. 

 

Methods:
Work groups from 49 countries followed harmonized procedures to develop their Report Cards by grading 10 common indicators using the best available data. The participating countries were divided into 3 categories using the United Nations’ human development index (HDI) classification (low or medium, high, and very high HDI). 

 

Results:
A total of 490 grades, including 369 letter grades and 121 incomplete grades, were assigned by the 49 work groups. Overall, an average grade of “C-,” “D+,” and “C-” was obtained for the low and medium HDI countries, high HDI countries, and very high HDI countries, respectively. 

 

Conclusions:
The present study provides rich new evidence showing that the situation regarding the physical activity of children and youth is a concern worldwide. Strategic public investments to implement effective interventions to increase physical activity opportunities are needed.

Mette Winge Jakobsen, Cathrine Juel Lau, Thomas Skovgaard, Riitta-Maija Hämäläinen & Arja Aro

This article analyses the use of research evidence (RE) in three policy processes, at the local level, dealing with physical activity. We analysed an extensive number of policy documents and a total of 14 interviews with policymakers. Results show an unsystematic way of using RE, where demographic and statistical data as well as expert consultation were mostly used. Lack of transparency of RE use complicated the tracking of sources from introduction to actual policy impact. It can be concluded that the policymakers engaged in health issues have a wider use of RE than the policymakers working with more sports-oriented issues.

Jonas Vestergaard Nielsen, Heidi Klakk, Anna Bugge, Marianne Løgtholt Andreasen & Thomas Skovgaard

Schools constitute an important arena for promoting physical activity. However, school-based programmes often face implementation challenges, and the identification of factors influencing the implementation process is considered important in order to secure the effectiveness of future interventions.

The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing the various implementation stages during the initial years of a programme tripling the amount of physical education at the primary school level.

Document analysis of publicly available programme descriptions and meeting minutes, were conducted. Document analysis was complemented by two semi-structured group interviews with main programme managers to gather in-depth programme experiences and perspectives.

Results show that early involvement of schools may ensure the best possible match between programmes and the needs and resources of schools, and that an ongoing shared partnership may help programme managers address program challenges in early stages.

It seems that predetermined core elements in programmes are essential. At the same time programmes must be flexible enough for adaptation to individual school contexts. Finally, the implementation of triple the amount of physical education, is supported by teachers receiving a professional development course focusing on how to organise outdoor physical education in different seasons and weather conditions.

Jonas Vestergaard Nielsen, Thomas Skovgaard, Thomas Bredahl, Anna Bugge, Niels Wedderkopp & Heidi Klakk

Documenting the implementation of effective real-world programmes is considered an important step to support the translation of evidence into practice.

Thus, the aim of this study was to identify factors influencing the adoption, implementation and maintenance of the Svendborgproject (SP) – an effective real-world programme comprising schools to implement triple the amount of physical education (PE) in pre-school to sixth grade in six primary schools in the municipality of Svendborg, Denmark. SP has been maintained for ten years and scaled up to all municipal schools since it was initiated in 2008.

The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework (RE-AIM) was applied as an analytic tool through a convergent mixed method triangulation design.

Results show that SP has been implemented with high fidelity and become an established part of the municipality and school identity. The successful implementation and dissemination of the programme has been enabled through the introduction of a predominantly bottom-up approach combined with simple non-negotiable requirements. The results show that this combination has led to a better fit of programmes to the individual school context while still obtaining high implementation fidelity. Finally, the early integration of research has legitimated and benefitted the programme.

Louise Stjerne Knudsen, Thomas Skovgaard & Thomas Bredahl

Introduction:
The benefits of physical activity for children's health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited amount of knowledge about teachers' views when it comes to integrating physical activity as part of teaching. The aim of this study is to understand teachers' motivation for integrating physical activity as part of teaching and to assess their need for guidance and support.


Methods & Analysis:
The study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Schools from across Denmark are included in the sample. The design comprises two separated phases-a quantitative and qualitative phase. The quantitative phase is guided by the self-determination theory where teachers' motivation will be measured using the Work Task Motivation Scale for Teachers. The theory of scaffolding guides the qualitative phase, which consists of in-depth interviews with participants selected from the quantitative phase based on levels of motivation and on demographic information. In accordance with the study aims, the analysis of data will identify teachers' internal and external levels of motivation. The purpose of the qualitative phase is to enhance understanding of teachers' motivation and of their need for support in the use of physical activity in teaching.


Ethics & Dissemination:
All relevant ethics approvals have been acquired. All participants in this study will provide written informed consent prior to data collection. All data emerging from the quantitative and qualitative phase will be anonymised for analysis. Ethics approval was requested from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics for Southern Denmark approval ID S-20162000-40 and the Danish Data Protection Agency approval ID 16/15491). The study was deemed not notifiable by both authorities.

Lars Breum Christiansen, Pernille Lund-Cramer, Ruben Brondeel, Søren Smedegaard, Anne-Didde Holt & Thomas Skovgaard

Purpose
Physical activity at school can improve the mental health of all children – especially if it targets children's developmental needs and is carried out in a positive social climate. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a 9-month school intervention focusing on physical self-worth, self-perceived sport competence, body attractiveness, social competences and global self-worth in children aged 10–13 years.


Methods
Taking self-determination theory as its starting point, the intervention was developed and pilot-tested in close co-operation with schools. It targeted 1) PE lessons, 2) in-class activity outside PE, and 3) physical activity during break-time. It used a cluster-randomized design to select 24 Danish schools either for intervention or for control. Survey data on self-perception variables, socio-demographics and physical activity was collected prior to intervention and after 9 months.


Results
A total of 2797 children were included in the analyses. All five self-perception variables increased between baseline and follow-up, and there were no significant differences between intervention and control schools. Sub-group analyses of gender, social class, body image and leisure sport revealed significant differences at baseline for most self-perception variables. For students with no leisure sport participation at the intervention schools, the follow-up results showed a more positive development for global self-worth.


Conclusions
Despite limited overall intervention effects on self-perceived competence and self-worth, the intervention appeared to diminish the gap between those groups with most and those with least self-confidence. Even though many of the new activities and approaches were implemented, some teachers were challenged to create a positive social climate.

Anne-Didde Holt, Søren Smedegaard, Charlotte Skau Pawlowski, Thomas Skovgaard & Lars Breum Christiansen

Physical activity at school can be beneficial to children’s psychosocial well-being. To realise this potential, a school environment that supports physical activity is crucial. Self-Determination Theory provides the basis for one approach, namely to focus on pupils’ need to feel competent, autonomous and related. The purpose of this study was to investigate how pupils experienced a school physical activity intervention based on Self-Determination Theory and to assess whether the components developed for the intervention appeared to increase the pupils’ sense of competence, autonomy and relatedness, thereby furthering their psychosocial well-being. Two schools were selected to take part in a qualitative case study, with one grade four (ages 9–10) and one grade six (ages 12–13) class selected for closer monitoring. Ten semi-structured focus group interviews were carried out, involving 36 pupils, combined with 28 days of participant observations. The data were analysed based on the principles of deductive content analysis, using competence, autonomy and relatedness in the categorisation matrix. Findings showed that the pupils’ sense of relatedness was central to well-being and influenced their sense of competence and autonomy. Changing the physical activity climate to focus on mastery and learning instead of competing and performance was challenging, but in some instances brought about more positive experiences, especially for pupils with limited motivation in school physical activity. Finally, while being given influence and choice evidently promoted the sense of autonomy, some pupils felt uncomfortable choosing activities on behalf of the group.

Maja Bertram, Natasa Loncarevic, Christina Radl-Karimi, Malene Thøgersen, Thomas Skovgaard & Arja R. Aro

Background
The present study aims to test out contextually tailored interventions to increase evidence-informed health-enhancing physical activity policy-making in two Danish municipalities.


Methods
The study was performed as experiments in natural settings. Based on results from a pre-intervention study defining the needs and contexts of the two settings, the interventions were developed based on logical models. The interventions aimed at increasing the use of knowledge in policy-making, primarily via strengthening intersectoral collaboration. The interventions were evaluated via pre-, post- and 12-month follow-up questionnaires and qualitative interviews were carried out prior to the intervention start.


Results
The use of knowledge changed in several ways. In one municipality, the use of stakeholder and target group knowledge increased whereas, in the other municipality, the use of research knowledge increased. In both municipalities, the ability to translate knowledge to local context, the political request and the organisational procedures for use of knowledge increased during the interventions. There was some variation between the two settings, which shows the importance of tailoring to context. Most of the changes were diminished at the 12-month follow-up.


Conclusion
Contextually tailored interventions have the potential to increase evidence-informed policy-making on health-enhancing physical activity. However, this finding needs to be tested in larger samples and its sustainability must be strengthened.

2017

Kristian Fahnøe Munksgaard, Thomas Skovgaard & Lisbeth Runge Larsen

På legepladsen, i motorikrummet eller på gangene i et dansk dagtilbud støder man helt sikkert på børn, der løber, hopper, tumler eller triller frem og tilbage og ind i mellem hinanden. Det er der mange grunde til at glædes over, og samtidig arbejde for at endnu flere får en fysisk aktiv hverdag i dagtilbud. Det er nemlig sådan, at bevægelse fremmer børns glæde (Sørensen, 2012), og bevægelse har gavnlige effekter på motorisk udvikling, psykosocial sundhed og kognition hos børn i 0-6 års alderen (Sundhedsstyrelsen, 2016).

Søren Smedegaard, Ruben Brondeel, Lars Breum Christiansen & Thomas Skovgaard

Background
The aim of this study was to address the gap in the translation of research into practice through an extensive process evaluation of the Move for Well-being in School programme using the RE-AIM framework. The purpose was to gain insight into the extent by which the intervention was adopted and implemented as intended and to understand how educators observed its effectiveness and maintenance.


Methods
Public schools located in seven municipalities in Denmark were invited to enroll their 4th to 6th grade classes in the project. Of these, 24 school decided to participate in the project in the school-year 2015–16 and were randomly (cluster) allocated to either intervention or control group. A process survey was completed online by school personnel at the start, at midterm, and at the end of the school year. Additionally, informal interviews and observations were conducted throughout the year.


Results
At the 12 intervention schools, a total of 148 educators were involved in the implementation of the programme over the school-year. More than nine out of ten educators integrated brain breaks in their lessons and practically all the physical education teachers used the physical education lesson plans. The educators delivered on average 4.5 brain breaks per week and up to 90% of the physical education teachers used the project lesson plans for at least half of their classes. Half of the educators initiated new recess activities.

A total of 78%, 85% and 90% of the educators believed that the implemented recess, brain break and physical education components ‘to a high degree’ or ‘to some degree’ promoted the pupils’ well-being, respectively.


Conclusions
This study shows that it is possible to design a school-based PA intervention that educators largely adopt and implement. Implementation of the PA elements was stable throughout the school year and data demonstrate that educators believed in the ability of the intervention to promote well-being among the pupils. Finally, the study show that a structured intervention consisting of competence development, set goals for new practices combined with specific materials, and ongoing support, effectively reached a vast majority of all teachers in the enrolled schools with a substantial impact.

2016

Thomas Skovgaard

The aim of this article is to analyze political decision-making from the point of view of the more recent history of physical education as part of public schools in Denmark. Analytically, the article focuses on policy formulation defined as: the part of a given political decision-making process that includes the establishment of a valid, but not necessarily unequivocal, common understanding, identification, and realization of “the problem,” its importance and potential solutions. In this context, political activities are mainly about influencing the formulation of policy proposals and decisions. Empirically, the article is based on a series of written materials which in a broad or narrow sense can be regarded as public. The article consists of two parts: First a historical part relating to the period from the end of the 1930s to the mid-00s. After this follows an account of the situation as it has been in the most recent years. Past and present developments are finally compared in an attempt to pinpoint probable future directions of the political theme of sport, health, and school.

Lisbeth Runge Larsen, Jens Troelsen, Kasper Lund Kirkegaard, Søren Riiskjær, Rikke Fredenslund Krølner, Lars Østergaard ... & Thomas Skovgaard

Background
The first Danish Report Card on Physical Activity (PA) for Children and Youth describes Denmark’s efforts in promoting and facilitating PA and PA opportunities for children and youth.


Methods
The report card relies primarily on a synthesis of the best available research and policy strategies identified by the Report Card Research Committee consisting of a wide presentation of researchers and experts within PA health behaviors and policy development. The work was coordinated by Research and Innovation Centre for Human Movement and Learning situated at the University of Southern Denmark and the University College Lillebaelt. Nine PA indicators were graded using the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card development process.


Results
Grades from A (highest) to F (lowest) varied in Denmark as follows: 1) Overall Physical Activity (D+), 2) Organized Sport Participation (A), 3) Active Play (INC; incomplete), 4) Active Transportation (B), 5) Sedentary Behaviors (INC), 6) Family and Peers (INC), 7) School (B), 8) Community and the Built Environment (B+), and 9) Government strategies and investments (A-).


Conclusions
A large proportion of children in Denmark do not meet the recommendations for PA despite the favorable investments and intensions from the government to create good facilities and promote PA.

Søren Smedegaard, Lars Breum Christiansen, Pernille Lund-Cramer, Thomas Bredahl & Thomas Skovgaard

Background
The benefits of physical activity for the mental health and well-being of children and young people are well-established. Increased physical activity during school hours is associated with better physical, psychological and social health and well‐being. Unfortunately many children and young people exercise insufficiently to benefit from positive factors like well-being.

The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a multi-component, school-based, physical activity intervention to improve psychosocial well-being among school-aged children and youths from the 4th to the 6th grade (10–13 years).


Methods
A four-phased intervention – design, pilot, RCT, evaluation - is carried out for the development, implementation and evaluation of the intervention which are guided by The Medical Research Council framework for the development of complex interventions. 24 schools have been randomized and the total study population consists of 3124 children (baseline), who are followed over a period of 9 months. Outcome measure data at the pupil level are collected using an online questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up, 9 months later with instruments for measuring primary (general physical self-worth) and secondary outcomes (self-perceived sport competences, body attractiveness, scholastic competences, social competences and global self-worth; enjoyment of PA; self-efficacy; and general well-being) that are both valid and manageable in setting-based research. The RE-AIM framework is applied as an overall instrument to guide the evaluation.


Discussion
The intervention focuses on the mental benefits of physical activity at school, which has been a rather neglected theme in health promotion research during recent decades. This is unfortunate as mental health has been proclaimed as one of the most important health concerns of the 21st century. Applying a cluster RCT study design, evaluating the real-world effectiveness of the intervention, this study is one of the largest physical activity intervention projects promoting psychosocial well-being among children and youths. Through a comprehensive effectiveness evaluation and a similar substantial process evaluation, this study is designed to gain knowledge on a broad variety of implementation issues and give detailed information on project delivery and challenges at the school level – among other things to better inform future practice.